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Fitosociologia numero 39 (1)

pag. 45-70: La vegetazione dei "guazzi" e il paesaggio vegetale della pianura alluvionale del tratto terminale del Fiume Musone (Italia centrale)

E. Biondi, S. Casavecchia & Z. Radetic

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università di Ancona, via Brecce bianche, I-60131 Ancona; e-mail: biondi@popcsi.unian.it

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abstract

The "guazzi" vegetation and the plant landscape of the alluvial plane of the last stretch of the Musone River (Central Italy). The phytosociological study of the "guazzi" vegetation and the plant landscape of the last stretch of the Musone River alluvial plane is here presented. The "guazzi" are little artificial wet areas, made and kept for hunting reasons. The structural and managerial characteristics, as well as the environmental conditions of these formations, are described. The floristic research allowed to register 165 entities divided into 49 families and 116 genera. They are generally common species of anthropic and ruderal areas while some of them have a certain interest for the regional flora. These species are mainly found within the "guazzi" which therefore contribute considerably in the increase of biodiversity of the examined territory. The phytosociological study allowed the identification of several syntaxa, mainly connected to "guazzi", some of which are described for the first time: Crypsido schoenoidis-Juncetum bufonii ass. nova; Loto tenuis-Paspaletum paspaloidis ass. nova; Trifolio fragiferi-Ranunculetum ophioglossifolii ass. nova; Eleocharitetum palustris Schennik 1919 paspaletosum paspaloidis subass. nova; Bolboschoenetum maritimi Eggler 1933 lotetosum tenuis subass. nova, Senecio erucifolii-Inuletum viscosae Biondi & Allegrezza 1996 lotetosum tenuis subass. nova.
Through these researches it was also possible to identify the vegetational potentiality of the area and to reconstruct the vegetation  series which is represented by the Lauro nobilis-Fraxineto oxycarpae sygmetum, here presented in its main members.
In the closing considerations the role of "guazzi" as ecosystems of wet areas owing a great interest for the flora, the vegetation and the fauna of the examined territory, is underlined. For this reason they are to be considered as knots of a system of biologica1 relationships, in accordance with the conceptions of the ecological corridors, together with the diffused elements present in the rural landscape (such as isolated or lined up trees, little woods, hedges, and so on). From these observations rises the opportunity to realize similar structures even within protected areas, such as parks and natura1 reserves. This will allow the partial re-naturalization of the territory. In fact, through historical documents of the area, it is known that similar wet habitats were naturally present before the realization of drainage works which had interested a great part of the sublittoral of the Adriatic side of
the Italian peninsula.

keywords

Italy, landscape ecology, phytosociology, water vegetation, wet areas