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Fitosociologia numero 45 (1) S1

pag. 3-55: Contributo alla conoscenza della vegetazione e del paesaggio vegetale della Riserva Naturale “Monte Cofano” (Sicilia occidentale)

L. Gianguzzi & A. La Mantia

1Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 38, I-90123 Palermo;e-mail: gianguzz@unipa.it

2Via Giotto 64, I-90145 Palermo; e-mail: lamantia@libero.it

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abstract

Vegetation and plant landscape of “Mount Cofano” Natural Reserve (W Sicily). It is here presented the results of a study of the phytosociological and plant landscape of Mount Cofano Natural Reserve (Custonaci, Trapani) together with a cartographic representation to a scale of 1:10000 (reduced to a scale of 1:20000). The studied area is localised along the western side of Sicily island and it is spread out for 537,5 ha, dominated by Mt. Cofano rocky promontory (659 mts.), regarded as one of the most interesting biotopes of the regional territory linked to its floristic, zoological and environmental features. From a geolithological point of view, the area is characterized by carbonathic substrata relative to Monte Sparacio-Monte Cofano and Monte Speziale-Monte Palatimone Units. Bioclastic calcarenites and conglomerates of arenitic type are present at the borders of the area. The most diffused pedological soil associations are lithosols (Lithic Xerorthents), rock outcrop (Rock Outcrop), “Terre rosse mediteranee” (Lithic Rhodoxeralfs) and “Suoli bruni” (Typic Xerochrepts). From a bioclimatic point of view, the whole territory is included in the (lower) thermomediterranean upper dry belt, but the northern part of Mt. Cofano, above 450 mts. altitude, is to be referred to the (lower) mesomediterranean upper suhumid belt.
In order to give a good interpretation of sigmeta and microgeosigmeta of the natural landscape, the syndinamic relationships between several series of vegetation are discussed as well as the ecological, floristic and structural-physiognomic characters of the plant communities. The climatophilous series are the following: – coastal Sicilian, basophilous, of calcarenites, thermomediterranean dry series of kermes oak (Chamaeropo humilis-Querco calliprini sigmetum); – coastal-hilly Sicilian, basophilous and umbrophilous, of detrital slopes, thermomediterranean dry series of holm oak and termophilous deciduous species (Rhamno alaterni-Querco ilicis pistacietoso terebinthi sigmetosum); – coastal-hilly Sicilian, basophilous and heliophilous, of limestone, thermomediterranean dry-subhumid series of holm oak and Pistacia lentiscus (Pistacio lentisci-Querco ilicis sigmetum); – hilly Sicilian, neutroacidophilous, of leached calcareous soils, mesomediterranean subhumid series of holm oak and strawberry tree (Pistacio lentisci-Querco ilicis arbutetoso unedonisPistacio-Chamaeropo humilis sigmetum); – coastal-hilly Sicilian, basophilous, of limestone, thermomediterranean dry series of wild olive (Rhamno-Euphorbio dendroidis euphorbietoso bivonae sigmetosum). The microgeosigmeta of maritime cliffs, rocky slopes, detrital slopes and temporary ponds are also presented. Some new syntaxa referred to Crithmo-Limonietea (Limonietum bocconei subass. limonietosum bocconeihelichrysetosum cophanensis), Crataego-Prunetea (Clematido cirrhosae-Rubetum ulmifolii subass. calystegietosum sylvaticae and subass. rhoetosum coriariae), Cisto-Micromerietea (Brachypodio ramosi-Cistetum cretici), Scrophulario-Helichrysetea italici (Sedo sediformis-Centranthetum rubri) and Quercetea ilicis (Pyro amygdaliformis-Calicotometum infestae, Pistacio lentisci-Quercetum ilicis subass. arbutetosum unedonis) classes are described.

keywords

NW Sicily, “Mount Cofano” Natural Reserve, plant landscape, phytosociology, vegetation series