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Fitosociologia numero 40 (1)

pag. 55-71: Processi di riforestazione naturale della faggeta nella fascia altitudinale inferiore del versante laziale del Massiccio dei Monti Simbruini (Italia Centrale)

F. Attorre & F. Bruno

Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma; e-mail: franco.bruno@uniroma1.it

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abstract

During the last decades the reduction of traditional agricultural and breeding activities has caused a noticeable expansion of forest vegetation in the Apennines coherent to the climatic conditions. The study of the dynamics of forest vegetation expansion is therefore fundamental for adopting suitable conservation strategies of those landscapes that undergo deep changes which menace the conservation of semi-natural habitats, as, for example, the secondary grasslands that lie on calcareous substrata. These grasslands are important sites for orchids and other geophytes of great interest. For this reason the plant communities located in the lower range of the Simbruini Mountains have been studied through phytosociological and pedological analysis. In particular this work has focused on the shrubs mainly composed by Rosa sp. pl. which are dynamically linked to the beech woods. The plant communities were analysed through 48 phytosociological relevés using multi-variate techniques (classification and ordination). The pedological analysis has shown the dynamic relationship between the identified communities: in this dynamic model we propose a new association, Ribeso uvae-crispae-Rosetum dumalis, belonging to Berberidion vulgaris alliance. This association, that is ecologically analogous to Corylo avellanae-Rosetum vosagiacae and Berberido-Rosetum associations, represents the transitional shrub stadium between the grasslands of Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis and the Fagus sylvatica woods belonging to Cardamino kitaibelii-Fagetum sylvaticae. This vegetation series occurs in the mountainside ditches whose soils are rich in allophones deriving from alteration of volcanic material. The Ribeso uvae-crispae-Rosetum dumalis contributes to the expansion of the woody vegetation by acting as germination nucleus for the beechwood seedlings that are therefore able to expand. Instead, the communities of Koelerio splendentis-Brometum erecti that occupy the micro-reliefs, which are situated between one ditch and the other and that lie on calcareous rendzina soils, because of adverse soil conditions, are excluded from the natural reforestation process.

keywords

beech woods, natural reforestation, Simbruini mountains